(b). The Contracting Governments undertake to promulgate all laws, decrees, orders and regulations and to take all other steps which may be. Editors: Emilie Brévière and the SOLAS Scientific Steering Committee .. SOLAS project have recently been published (Liss & Johnson , Brévière et al. SOLAS Consolidated Edition SHIP SECURITY ALERT SYSTEM · ISM Code PDF ( Edition) International Safety Management Code · IMO Resolution.
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SOLAS. Consolidated Edition, Consolidated text of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, , and its Protocol of. The Convention is also one of the oldest of its kind: the first version was adopted in following the sinking of the Titanic with the loss of more than 1, lives. SOLAS. CONSOLIDATED EDITION Supplement. December The following amendments were adopted by resolution MSC(92) on 21 June
Provide information necessary for the calibration and validation of satellite data. An overview of the achievements of the first decade of Argo is given in Freeland et al. Argo data Fig. Argo has also brought remarkable advances in ocean analysis and forecasting capability. Based on the assessment that climate change research requires long-term, sustained, high quality and global observations, the leading priority and challenge for Argo must be to complete and sustain the global array.
This requires deploying between and new floats every year. Several developments of the Argo core mission have also been proposed.
Minor changes include the extension of the array into seasonal ice zones and marginal seas. Deeper measurements are needed to constrain the deep ocean property fields for climate monitoring and long-term prediction.
Recent technological advances in biogeochemical sensors will permit the acquisition of new observations of the ocean interior e. Claustre et al.
The main parameters that are considered for initial implementation are oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll a and particulate carbon. Pilot experiments have already begun, in particular for dissolved oxygen almost Argo floats are today equipped with an oxygen sensor. Potential systematic errors due to different measurement techniques or sensors need to be analysed and further corrected to ensure delivery of quality-flagged controlled data sets. These evolutions will require new resources and careful progressive implementation so that the core of Argo is not diminished.
The spectrum of ocean observations includes data collection from moorings, AUV surveys e. Ocean time-series sites are fewer in number but they allow collection of critically needed data that illustrates temporal variability on ocean—atmosphere exchange and water-column processes over seasonal to multi-decadal timescales.
Both sites serve as important frameworks for larger-scale field and modelling studies in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean or Sargasso Sea. The BATS site exhibits strong seasonality in the ocean—atmosphere exchange of gases such as oxygen e. Ono et al. Bates et al. Dacey et al.
The observed decoupling of DMS concentration from its precursors i. The challenges that have faced ocean time-series programmes have been both practical and scientific. Sustaining ocean time-series requires the provision of suitable platforms for observation i. Scientific questions include reconciling time-variations within the context of the four dimensional state space and time of the ocean, which includes substantial mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability e.
McGillicuddy et al. Understanding ocean and climate relevant processes that influence the ocean—atmosphere exchange of gases and particles requires an improved synergy between sustained observation and hypothesis testing over a variety of scales, both spatial and temporal. There is a paucity of long-term measurements of reactive trace gases and aerosols in clean marine environments, but the reported studies have revealed important insights into ocean—atmosphere interactions and their consequences for atmospheric composition and climate.
Seasonal observations of sulphur-containing gases and aerosols at Cape Grim atmospheric observatory, Tasmania Measurements of sea-salt aerosol composition at Cape Grim confirmed that bromine deficits a decrease of the bromine to sodium ratio of sea- salt aerosol compared to sea water were linked to the availability of sulphate acidity in the aerosol Ayers et al.
This provided experimental evidence for the net transfer of bromine from sea salt aerosol to the gas phase, where it catalyses photochemical ozone destruction and modifies the concentrations of many important tropospheric gases Sander and Crutzen ; Vogt et al.
Aspects of O3 photochemistry have also been confirmed by long-term marine observations; at Cape Grim, diurnal cycling of hydrogen peroxide, one of the major products of HOx radical OH and HO2 recombination reactions, is in opposite phase to that of O3 Ayers and Gras , as expected in clean low-NOx air. The observed relationships between free radical levels and the O3 photolysis rate jO1D change according to NOx levels, indicating the critical NO concentration required to switch from O3 destruction to O3 production Carpenter et al.
In the northern hemisphere, a longer than year record in baseline O3 at the coastal Irish station at Mace Head Background O3 can be an important contributor to the levels experienced in urban regions, which are not declining in developed regions including Europe despite decreasing precursor emissions. The northern tropical Atlantic ocean is subject to sporadic but significant dust deposition originating in the African Sahara and Sahel regions.
Dust emission has immediate impacts on humans, plus widespread influence on the radiative balance and on marine biological production and biogeochemical cycles, and is believed to have increased due to changes in land use practices Jickells et al.
A wealth of information comes from the long-term record since of airborne desert dust measured in Barbados At this site, mineral dust concentrations are correlated with rainfall deficits in the sub-Saharan region Prospero and Nees ; Prospero and Lamb , and the net light scattering of dust exceeds that of nss-sulphate aerosol by about a factor of 4 Li et al. There are still, however, considerable uncertainties associated with the global radiative forcing of mineral dust, given the high variability of dust loadings and limited knowledge of dust optical properties Andreae et al.
In the tropical North Atlantic, Saharan dust has been shown to stimulate nitrogen fixation, which is co-limited by iron and phosphorus Mills et al. Recently, Okin et al. The location of the site Fig. Atmospheric measurements focus on reactive trace gases, greenhouse gases and aerosols Fig. Open image in new window Fig. In this region, dust is deposited mainly by dry deposition, peaking in the winter months when African desert dust is exported across the Atlantic within the lower troposphere.
The ionic composition of the aerosol at Cape Verde is dominated by sea salt, but in Saharan dust episodes iron typically constitutes ca. Higher solubilities are measured at lower atmospheric dust concentrations, a ubiquitous feature among aerosol solubility datasets. A bimodal size distribution for the DCA oxalic acid and coarse mode concentration maxima for the other DCAs are observed, as is typical for marine aerosols.
The MSA concentration closely follows that of non-sea-salt-sulphate and the size distribution shows a maximum mean concentration in the accumulation mode and in sea-salt particles. There is very little information on the abundance and distribution of these gases in the marine boundary layer MBL in part due to an inability to observe some of these compounds at the very low concentrations characteristic of this environment.
Observations show that in this region NOx levels peak in winter at 35—45 pptv , when air masses from Africa and Europe prevail Lee et al. This seasonality is attributed mainly to increased NOx transported from the West African continent from e. These reservoir species may undergo decomposition within long-range plumes re-releasing NOx, particularly for PAN as air masses descend and reach higher temperatures. Averaged NO mixing ratios at Cape Verde daily averages are between 2 and 8 pptv are negatively correlated with observed photochemical O3 destruction; these observations were reproduced using a simple box model and together imply that the presence of 17—34 pptv of NO would be required to turn the tropical North Atlantic from an O3 destroying to an O3 producing regime Lee et al.
Since NOx emissions from shipping e. OVOCs are generally present in higher concentrations in the lower atmosphere than non-methane hydrocarbons NMHC and have a comparable if not greater effect on oxidising capacity through reaction with hydroxyl radical OH.
Upon photodecomposition, they produce organic radicals that can form organic nitrate compounds such as PAN, sequestering NOx and transporting it to remote regions of the atmosphere, thus affecting the tropospheric ozone budget and concentrations of OH Singh et al. In the remote marine atmosphere, oceanic sources and sinks are expected to play a significant role in controlling OVOC concentrations, however both the magnitude and direction of OVOC fluxes are a matter of debate Heikes et al.
All three OVOCs show a similar cycle with maxima in spring March and autumn between July and September with particularly high peaks in some years in September , lower levels in summer and generally the lowest levels in winter Nov-Jan. Acetaldehyde is produced in the ocean through photodegradation of coloured dissolved organic matter and has a strong dependence on sunlight Kieber and Mopper Including estimates of the sea-air flux of acetaldehyde from the measurements of Beale et al.
The model thus still falls short of the observations especially in September through to December — a period of high coastal and continental African influence for reasons that are currently unknown. Reactive marine-derived halogens have been proposed to exert a globally significant effect on the concentration and lifetimes of climatically active gases through gas and aerosol phases of the marine boundary layer Vogt et al.
Bromine and iodine-containing reactive halogen species can influence tropospheric oxidation capacity via a number of reaction cycles including catalytic O3 destruction, modification of NOx and HOx cycles with resulting effects on the lifetimes of other climatically important trace gases Keene et al.
Observations of halogen oxide radicals, ozone, and supporting data at Cape Verde made in provided the first direct experimental evidence for halogen-catalysed tropospheric ozone destruction Read et al. Recent research Martino et al. Cape Verde researchers aim to build on these first few years of measurements at the CVAO over the next decade by, for example, quantifying the nitrogen oxides budget, elucidating the nature and magnitude of oceanic iodine emissions, evaluating the influence of dust on the ocean heat budget, understanding oceanic nitrogen fixation, quantifying air-sea exchange fluxes of important gases in the west African upwelling area, and analysing long-term trends in trace gases and aerosols in the context of environmental and climate change.
Some have been in continuous operation without any interruption, some have stopped temporarily and some indefinitely. Since the early s, the launch of the Argo programme with the target of 3, floats per year cruising the global ocean has brought a new perspective since it provides a unique and systematic source of information about the interior of the ocean.
Only the combination of eulerian and lagrangian observatories in an integrated framework will allow a four dimensional vision of the state of the ocean. One basic key to success of these networks is the constant quest for the best procedures for quality checking, intercomparability and treatment of the data collected. Another key is for the data to be archived in a responsible manner, meaning ensuring proper software developments and addressing management challenges of really huge datasets to secure online delivery and long-term security.
Since the early s, satellite oceanography has made huge progress and global satellite observations are now crucial elements of the global climate observing systems GCOS.
Remotely sensed data are also basic ingredients of any oceanic and atmospheric process study. Sea surface temperature, sea level, wave height, winds, sea surface salinity, sea ice and ocean colour are ocean—atmosphere observables monitored with near global coverage on a daily to monthly basis.
Satellite measurements of concentrations of trace gases and long lived greenhouse gases, when combined appropriately with atmospheric chemistry models, have over the past 30 years provided a continuously improving picture of the distribution of the surface fluxes of these gases at the air-sea interface.
Satellite observations are instrumental tools of SOLAS science to address seasonal to multi-decadal time scale variability in the ocean—atmosphere exchange of gases and aerosol-borne chemicals. In situ observations, both oceanic and atmospheric, presented in Sect. Remotely sensed data provide global-scale data sets at an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution.
One major challenge ahead is to avoid any discontinuity of operating satellites for the long-term archive and to minimise calibration drift for performing proper climate studies. Earth observations represent a unique observational capability to detect changes in the ocean—atmosphere system and to better understand how planet Earth functions as a complex adaptive system.
The following subsections briefly introduce each type of ocean—atmosphere observation. From the vantage point of space, a radar altimeter is able to measure the shape of the sea surface globally and frequently.
Due to three decades of international effort, satellite altimetry has benefited from a series of missions, leading to an improvement in measurement accuracy by three orders of magnitude, from tens of meters to a few centimeters Fu and Cazenave In order to meet the long wavelength calibration accuracy requirements, topography profile measurements will be available with an accuracy equal to or better than the Jason series of altimeters and radiometers see SWOT Science Requirements Document, Version 1.
The skin temperature SSTskin is defined as the temperature measured by an infrared radiometer typically operating at wavelengths 3. To assure ethicality of data mining, certain factors have to be considered. Firstly, the process itself has to be guarded against any risk of the analytic result being predetermined by miners or data providers. Along with subject-matter expertise employed in validating the process, results are guaranteed to be legitimate, given all assumptions, limitations and faults truthfully reported in research.
From the ethical standpoint, the idea that knowledge about a group does not violate the privacy and rights of a specific individual is a big assumption. The rules discovered in data mining can be employed for social good, but they are also a subject to abuse. Rule sensitivity, as explained by Roddick and Fule , can become an ethical issue when used in decision making that affects human subjects.
This can be harming, or even dangerous, when a rule is overly generalised i. Sensitivity and adequacy of a rule should be revised by a knowledge expert or validated through exploring societal perception i. Ambiguity of that issue arises from the fact that a rule can be ethically sensitive, even though it is not directly violating the privacy of an individual.
Therefore, data mining should guarantee that methodologies are employed with every intention of protecting human subjects, and that the achieved results are used in morally responsible manner.
Although this is not directly dependent on miners and other professionals involved in the process, they should be aware of the social value of their work. As pointed out by Roddick and Fule , the principle of every research is that discovery tools are commonly open ended and it is not possible to know what will be found until it is discovered. Although there are many significant benefits to be derived, unregulated use of data mining can result in serious consequences.
Breach of ethical code can be very costly, especially for those who fundamentally operate for the good of public. Liberty, dignity and diversity of all cultures are indispensable values and must be respected at all times and protected by statutory laws and operational directives in any organisation. This is particularly important in any public service accountable for increasing public goods.
The main function of the new agency is funding, planning and coordinating a wide range of programmes providing jobseekers and other learners with new opportunities for training and further education. In the process of major transformation new structure is being formed and operational procedures evaluated.
This includes exchange of information for effective cooperation with stakeholders. With primary responsibility for the management of further training and education on the national level, SOLAS is granted great potential in knowledge discovery leading to development of high quality services. This will require building strong fundaments for ethical data mining, as the legacy policies do not cover that matter.
Furthermore, internal policies specified codes of best practice and provided guidelines for lawful and ethical procedures. They regulate the proper use of IT tools with particular attention to the flow of information.
Access and processing of personal data of trainees, jobseekers, contactors and other stakeholders have been strictly regulated and repeatedly addressed in order to preserve confidence. Among many points, the following have been frequently stressed: Equality, respect, interest of the public, as well as every individual learner, are considered at all times.
Whereas these are, as already explained, firmly guarded from the data protection standpoint, the issue of privacy-preserving knowledge discovery remains open. Since the results are not personal information in any way, the existing policies do not provide clear guidelines for ethical data mining. By building an integrated network of services and their providers, the new agency has every opportunity to lead a future focused initiative enhancing capabilities of the Irish workforce.
In doing so, it will be in control and will have access to many valuable data sources. Skilful use of data mining techniques can be a driver closing the gap between supply and demand on the vocational training market.
By anticipating future educational needs, instead of being merely a coordinator, SOLAS can immensely contribute to the growth of Irish economy. This, however, can only be achieved in the process of ethical knowledge discovery. The history of civilisation knows many examples of well intended actions leading to unexpected harm, including those that accomplished assigned duties but, nonetheless, resulted in negative consequences Seltzer Along with statutory and internal regulations, the methodology can add positive value and enhance efficiency in a safe and ethical way.
Before successful implementation of data mining techniques, however, the following points must be formally addressed in SOLAS. Data Mining Objective The discovery of relevant patterns must be purposeful and serve the good of public. This will foster constant development in line with the requirements of everchanging labour market, as well as responsible allocation of financial resources. Resources and Results Protection To assure correctness of conclusions drawn from data, there must be domain knowledge applied at all times.
The potential costs of invalid data mining can be damaging for the reputation of a public agency operating on the national level. It is of utter importance that the people involved at any stage are demonstrating high work morale and are fully aware of the ethical dimensions of data mining in SOLAS. Therefore, the procedures for sharing data with stakeholders have yet to be developed.
Along with industry standards and internal policies, this will lead to formulating best practices and code of conduct to excel in achieving accurate results. It should be noted that due to the ongoing public debate on excessive and unlawful data collection, the subject is under constant review. Therefore, it is imperative to stay current on legal developments, as well as the attitude of public towards privacy issues.
To protect the public interest, any damages caused in the course of action have to be fairly and ethically investigated. Considering potential risks, the responsible person should always be formally obligated to undoing or migrating the negative consequences of their work in the most efficient way.